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U.S. Department of  Agriculture

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  • Global Climate Change 

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Dosage reduction of methyl bromide fumigation in the spanish mediterranean coast

Abstract:"An important dosage reduction on MBr fumigation can be achieved by combination with soil solar heating during summer in the Mediterranean coast of Spain. This technique allows a significant action over fungi, weeds, plant health and harvest production, at least at the same level than fumigation with MBr at a normal dosage (about 60g/m2 of soil).  Controlled fungi include Phytophthora cactorum, P. parasitica, Pythium spp., Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Rhizoctonia solani. Crops include carnations, tomatoes, carrots and strawberries. Spontaneous flora is also controlled. 

Authors: V. Cebolla, P.F. Martinez, A. Del Busto, D. Gómez De Barreda, J.J. Tuset.  Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias 46113 Moncada (Valencia) Spain.  Published in:  Acta Horticulturae 382:156-163 el año 1994. 


Free-living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes (Roundworms)

"Introduction to an important group of soil and water organisms and an opportunity to conduct some simple biodiversity experiments. To extract and examine free-living or non-parasitic nematodes, that feed on bacteria, fungi or other nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes from soil samples".

Authors: Gregory L. Tylka, Iowa State University and Claudia A. Jasalavich, Nashua, NH. Editor: American Phytopathological Society. K-12 Teachers’ Guide to Lessons and Laboratories.


Keys to Soil Taxonomy

Foreword: "This publication, Keys to Soil Taxonomy, serves two purposes. It provides the taxonomic keys necessary for the classification of soils according to Soil Taxonomy in a form that can be used easily in the field, and it also acquaints users of Soil Taxonomy with recent changes in the classification system. This volume includes all revisions of the keys that have so far been approved, replacing the original keys in Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys (1975), the work on which this abridged version, first published in 1983, is based. We plan to continue issuing updated editions of Keys to Soil Taxonomy as changes warrant a new edition. Plans are under way to republish Soil Taxonomy in its entirety in 1998.  This publication incorporates all amendments approved to date and published in National Soil Taxonomy Handbook (NSTH) Issues 1-18. It includes the recommendations of the International Committee on Low Activity Clays (NSTH Issue #8), the International Committee on Oxisols (NSTH Issue #11), the International Committee on Andisols (NSTH Issue #13), the International Committee on Vertisols (NSTH Issue #16), the International Committee on Aquic Moisture Regime (NSTH Issue #16), the International Committee on Spodosols (NSTH Issue #16), the International Committee on Aridisols (NSTH Issue #17), and the International Committee on Families (NSTH #18). Editorial changes have been made throughout the Keys to Soil Taxonomy to make grammatical corrections and clarify the intent of the criteria.  The keys reproduced here were extracted from a computerized copy of Soil Taxonomy, which is maintained in complete, up-to-date form.  The authors of Keys to Soil Taxonomy are identified as "Soil Survey Staff." This term is meant to include all the soil classifiers in the National Cooperative Soil Survey program and in the international community who have made significant contributions to the improvement of Soil Taxonomy". RICHARD W. ARNOLD. Director, Soil Survey Division. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 1996.

Contents: Chapter 1: The Soil That We Classify, and Buried Soils. Chapter 2: Horizons and Properties Diagnostic for the Higher Categories: Mineral Soils. Figure 1.Andic soil properties. Chapter 3: Horizons and Properties Diagnostic for the Higher Categories: Organic Soils. Chapter 4: Identification of the Taxonomic Class of a Soil (Key To Soil Orders). Chapter 5: Alfisols. Chapter 6: Andisols. Chapter 7: Aridisols. Chapter 8: Entisols. Chapter 9: Histosols. Chapter 10: Inceptisols. Chapter 11: Mollisols. Chapter 12: Oxisols. Chapter 13: Spodosols. Chapter 14: Ultisols. Chapter 15: Vertisols. Chapter 16: Family and Series Differentiae and Names. Appendix A: Designations for Horizons and Layers. Appendix B: SI Unit Conversion Table. Appendix C: Figure 2. Textural Triangle. Index. Equal Opportunity Statement. 

Authors: Soil Survey Staff. United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Seventh Edition, 1996.


New techniques for methyl bromide emission reduction from soil fumigation in Spain

Introduction: "Methyl bromide (MB), used as fumigant in soil, will be phased out on the year 2010, because the effect of their emissions on the ozone layer depletion. Only some critical uses will remain allowed. In the meanwhile a limitation in the consumption of this fumigant is regulated. In any case it is crucial to improve the techniques to reduce the emissions affecting the ozone hole.  We have studied the improvement of application technique by using Hytibar (HT) from Hyplast (Belgium), which is considered a Very Impermeable Film (VIF) for MB, as cover sheet, and the combination with soil Solarization, in order to reduce the emissions to the atmosphere during application, The possibility of creating negative side effects, like increment of residues in soil, have also been taken into account".

Authors: V.Cebolla, J.J. Tuset, M. Guinet, A. Molins, J.L. Mira, C.Hinarejos.  Published in "Proceedings of Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions", Orlando 1996.


Water Molds

"An introduction to an important group of soil and water organisms (the Oomycetes) and an opportunity to conduct some simple biodiversity exercises. This exercise can be used for all K-12 age groups and learning levels, but may be most useful for grades 7-12 in classrooms where dissecting and compound microscopes are available. It requires minimal materials (jars, popcorn, and natural water sample) and preparation".

Authors:  Gail L. Schumann, University of Massachusetts, Amherst and Claudia A. Jasalavich, Nashua, NH.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. K-12 Teachers’ Guide to Lessons and Laboratories.



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