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A Better Mousetrap.  Improving Pest Management for Agriculture

Contents: I. Introduction: The Pesticide Dilemma.  II. Applying Pesticides: Is There a Better Way?  III. Putting Nature to Work: Biological Methods of Pest Control. IV. Putting the Pieces Together: Integrated Pest Management.  V. Building Better Systems: Where Do We Go From Here?
Autor:  Michael J. Dover.  World Resources Institute, 1985.  96 p.  ISBN: 0915825090.


Agricultural Chemical Usage (PCU-BB)

Description: "This full-text report presents chemical application rates and acres treated by major producing states and US for field crops annually (corn, soybeans, cotton, potatoes, wheat); selected fruit crops and selected vegetable crops are reported in alternate years.Special reports present information related to chemical applications for selected crops in storage facilities (post harvest) and chemicals used on livestock, poultry, buildings and roadways".

Author: National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Antibiotic Use for Plant Disease Management in the United States

Author: Patricia S. McManus, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706-1598; and Virginia O. Stockwell, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331-2902.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


A strategic plan to preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics

Abstract: "The recent reports of three Americans infected by Staphylococcus bacteria that were resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin triggered only fleeting news coverage. The cases should have sent shudders through the medical community and the public, because vancomycin is the last line of defense in treating deadly hospital-acquired staph infections. Despite vancomycin’s value, a recent study showed that 63 percent of vancomycin prescriptions were inappropriate. The cases of vancomycin-resistant staph, taken together with widespread resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and other antibiotics, demonstrate the urgent need to prevent antibiotics from losing their effectiveness against diseases that are now curable. Despite antibiotics’ extraordinary value, the overuse of those miracle drugs in medicine and agriculture endangers their continued effectiveness. The more antibiotics are used, the more likely it is that bacteria will develop mechanisms to evade them".

This report was written by Patricia B. Lieberman, Ph.D., and Margo G. Wootan, D.Sc. The authors thank Dr. Richard Novick of New York University Medical School; Dr. Louis Rice of the VA Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio; Dr. Sidney Wolfe, executive director of Public Citizen Health Research Group in Washington, D.C.; and Dr. Karim Ahmed, Deputy Director of Health, Environment, and Development at the World Resources Institute in Washington, D.C. for reviewing this report.  Editor: Center for Science in the Public Interest.


Atrazine Environmental Characteristics and Economics of Management

Abstract: "Restricting or eliminating the use of atrazine in the Midwest would have important economic consequences for farmers and consumers. Atrazine is an important herbicide in the production of corn and other crops in the United States. Since atrazine is such an important herbicide, mandatory changes in application strategies are likely to generate sizable costs for producers and consumers. However, recent findings indicate that elevated amounts of atrazine are running off fields and entering surface water resources. This report presents the costs and benefits of an atrazine ban, a ban on pre-plant and pre-emergent applications, and a targeted ban to achieve a surface water standard. A complete atrazine ban is hypothesized to be the costliest strategy, while the targeted strategy is the least costly".

Authors: Marc O. Ribaudo and Aziz Bouzaher

Source: Economic Research Service. U.S. Department of  Agriculture. (Agricultural Economics Report No. 699. 28 pp, September 1994).


Biological Control: A Guide to Natural Enemies in North America

"This guide provides photographs and descriptions of biological control (or biocontrol) agents of insect, disease and weed pests in North America. It is also a tutorial on the concept and practice of biological control and integrated pest management (IPM). Whether you are an educator, a commercial grower, a student, a researcher, a land manager, or an extension or regulatory agent, we hope you will find this information useful. The guide currently includes individual pages of approximately 100 natural enemies of pest species, and we envision continued expansion. On each of these pages you will see photographs, descriptions of the life cycles and habits, and other useful information about each natural enemy. Four types of natural enemies are included in this guide and the guide logo shows, with links, representatives of each of the types. Clicking on any of the four parts of the logo, wherever it appears, will allow navigation to that section of the guide".

Contents: "Parasitoids. This wasp is laying its egg inside an aphid where its young will develop. Parasitoid immatures develop on or inside a host, killing it as they mature. They emerge as adults and continue the cycle.  Predators. Lady beetles are well-known examples of predatory insects. A predator consumes many prey during its lifetime. The predators listed in this guide feed on insects and mites. Pathogens. This nematode is just one example of a pathogen which may kill its host. Other pathogens include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. This section also includes antagonists which control plant diseases.  Weed Feeders. Weeds can be attacked by arthropods, vertebrates, and pathogens (fungi, viruses, bacteria, and nematodes). This weevil feeds only on one particular type of weed called purple loosestrife".

Editors: Cornell University.  Cathy Weeden, Tony Shelton, Yaxin Li and Mike Hoffmann.  


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Biological Control Of Weeds

A World Catalogue Of Agents And Their Target Weeds. "This fourth edition provides a comprehensive reference source to all attempts at biological control of weeds undertaken to the end of 1996. A substantial number of new releases have been made the third edition. The information is presented in four detailed lists (see contents), in a modified format for easy use.  Each entry details the target weed, control agent, year of first release, country of origin of agent, status and degree of control, research organization involved, and key references".

Editosr: M.H. Julien and M.W. Griffiths. Publication Date: 1997. Number of Pages:  239 pages.  Publisher: CABI.  ISBN: 085199234X.  (Source: opening books to the world for full text display of scientific, technical, and medical books).


Bunts and smuts revisited. Has the air been cleared?

"Introduction:  In the current era when worldwide commerce of agricultural and food products is critical to the economic well being of many countries, great concern develops when movement of such commodities is interrupted by quarantines. In some cases, these quarantines involve plant pathogens. One example of this has involved the smut fungi; particularly dwarf bunt and Karnal bunt. Many countries have an embargo on receiving grain carrying teliospores or bunted kernels of Karnal bunt (Fig. 1), thus restricting movement of grain from areas where this pathogen is known to occur. This review is directed toward the current situation regarding these two pathogens of wheat".

Author: Don E. Mathre, Department of Plant Sciences, Montana State University. Bozeman, MT.  

Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Burkholderia cepacia: friend or foe?

Introduction: "An extraordinary bacterium Burkholderia cepacia is currently attracting considerable attention for its extraordinary versatility as a plant pathogen, saprophyte, biocontrol agent, bioremediation agent, and human pathogen. Formerly known as Pseudomonas cepacia, this bacterium was first described in 1950 as the cause of sour skin of onions by Cornell University plant pathologist Walter Burkholder (1). P. cepacia was recently renamed Burkholderia cepacia (2) and transferred to the beta subdivision of the proteobacteria (3)".

Prepared by Jennifer L. Parke, Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, and Dept. of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


The christmas tree:  traditions, production and diseases

Abstract:"This paper takes a historical look at the Christmas tree industry and discusses three diseases that are limiting growers' ability to meet the demand for noble and Fraser fir in North America".

Authors: Gary A. Chastagner, Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA and D. Michael Benson, Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Cytology of fungal infection

Laboratory Exercises in Plant Pathology. 

Objectives:  "To become familiar with the cytological events involved in the establishment of infection by a fungal pathogen. To understand the effect of various management practices on particular infection events, and the significance of this to disease management".

Author: Paul Vincelli. Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Ecologically Based Pest Management, new solutions for a new century

Contents: 1. Lessons from the past provide direction for the future. 2. Defining and implementing ecologically based pest management. 3. accelerating research and development. 4. Public oversight of ecologically based pest management. References. 

Authors: Ralph W. F. Hardy, Roger N. Beachy and Harold Browning.  Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Proceses.  Board on Agriculture. National Reseaarch Council (USA).  Washington, 1996.  146 pages.

Publisher: National Academy Press.


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Economic Implications of the Methyl Bromide Phaseout

Abstract: "The pesticide methyl bromide is being phased out internationally under the Montreal Protocol. Methyl bromide has been used for over 50 years to control insect, nematodes, pathogens, and weeds. It is used for soil fumigation before planting many fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and agricultural nurseries; for post-harvest fumigation of commodities in storage and prior to shipment; and for government-required quarantine treatment to prevent the spread of regulated exotic pests. Many U.S. users are concerned that existing alternatives to methyl bromide will be less effective and cause financial losses. To help mitigate the impacts of the phaseout, USDA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), universities, and private firms are working to develop new alternatives and make them available to methyl bromide users".

Author and Source: Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 756 (AIB-756). February 2000.



Fruit Pathology - Disease Diagnostic Key

"The diagnostic keys for deciduous tree fruit diseases were developed to aid field personnel in the identification of diseases that are common to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The keys are arranged to guide the user through a series of logically arranged statements describing symptoms and signs of fruit tree diseases. By selecting from a series of numbered statements, those which most closely describe observations made in the field, the user should be able to narrow the possibilities to only one or a couple of probable diseases. Clicking on the symptom description (if highlighted) will link to a photographic image of the symptom. Some disease names are linked to Fact Sheets containing additional information on biology and disease monitoring".

Author:  West Virginia University.


Fusarium Head Blight of small grains. Return of an old problem

"Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grains (a.k.a."Scab") was first described just over a century ago and considered a major threat to wheat and barley during the early years of this century (6). In recent years FHB has again increased worldwide (28). The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) has identified FHB as a major factor limiting wheat production in many parts of the world (7). During the past decade, several European conferences on Fusarium diseases have been dominated by reports on FHB of cereals. The most recent (1997) of these was attended by scientists from 28 countries on five continents (22). A 1996 conference on FHB sponsored by CIMMYT also had worldwide participation (7)".

Author: Robert W. Stack, Plant Pathology Dept. North Dakota State University.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Genetically modified, insect resistant maize Implications for management ear and stalk diseases

Introduction: "The evolution of genetically modified crops took a major step in the mid-1990s with the approval and commercial release of insect-resistant maize hybrids with transgenes derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize). The release of Bt maize was met with great enthusiasm by many researchers and crop managers because of its ability to very effectively control European corn borers and other lepidopteran insects without the use of foliar insecticides. Crop producers and the agricultural industry rapidly accepted the technology and began to incorporate it into their crop production practices. But recently, controversy over production and use of genetically modified crop cultivars has focused a great deal of public attention on Bt maize..."

Author: G. P. Munkvold, Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, and R. L. Hellmich, USDA, ARS Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit, and Department of Entomology, Iowa State University.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Identification of powdery mildew fungi

Laboratory Exercises in Plant Pathology.  Objectives: "To observe powdery mildew signs on fresh plant material. To use characteristics of sexual fruiting structures on fresh or dried plant material to identify pathogens to genus".

Author: Heffer, V., M.L. Powelson, and K.B. Johnson. Oregon State University.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Implications of sequencing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans genome for plant nematology

Contents: A milestone in an animal.  Implications for plant nematology.  Gene cloning. Transformation. Gut antigens. Dauer larva development. Synteny cloning. Genome sequencing effort - a precedent. Evolution of plant parasitism. Distinctions unveiled. Outlook. Resources celebrating C. elegans.

Prepared by Joseph Esnard Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell Univ., Ithaca.   Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Index of fruit disease photographs, biology and monitoring information

"The following plant pathologists provided written material, photographs, or both, for The Mid-Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide. Photos from the Guide were used to link to the symptom descriptions in the disease key, and photos and text from the Guide were used to develop the "fact sheet" pages.   Also, some of the authors listed below provided articles and photographs for the "Fruit Disease Focus" series".

Author:  West Virginia University.


Pest Management and Identification - Pests of Home and Landscape. Pest Notes

Contents: Pests of structures, homes, people, and pets. Insect, mite, and mollusc pests of plants. Plant diseases. Nematodes. Weeds and unwanted plants. Vertebrates.

"The UC Statewide IPM Project developed the Pest Management Guidelines, Pest Notes, and Weed Photo Gallery databases to provide practical information on pest management techniques and identification for a broad range of California pests. Management suggestions apply to California, but also may be useful in other areas. This information is frequently modified and expanded to reflect recent changes in pest management techniques, pesticide registrations, and pest status.The primary sources of information for all three databases are scientists at the University of California's Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (DANR). These databases are maintained by the Statewide IPM Project".

Source: University California -  Statewide Integrated Pest Management Project.


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Pest Management in U.S. Agriculture

Abstract: "This report describes the use of pest management practices, including integrated pest management (IPM), for major field crops and selected fruits and vegetables. The data came chiefly from the 1996 Agricultural Resource Management Study (ARMS) developed by USDA. Because different pest classes may dominate among different crops and regions, requiring different pest management techniques to control them, the extent of adoption of pest management practices varies widely. For example, insects are a major pest class in cotton production, while minor for soybeans. As insect management has a wider variety of nonchemical techniques than weed control, cotton growers are expected to be further ahead on the IPM continuum than soybean producers".

Authors: Jorge Fernandez-Cornejo and Sharon Jans.

Source: Economic Research Service. U.S. Department of  Agriculture. (Agricultural Handbook No. 717. 84 pp, October 1999).


Pest Management & Identification - Pests of Agricultural Crops, Floriculture and Ornamental Nurseries, and Commercial Turfgrass. UC Pest Management Guidelines

"The UC Pest Management Guidelines database supplies the University of California's official guidelines for pest monitoring techniques, pesticides, and nonpesticide alternatives for managing insect, mite, nematode, weed, and disease pests in agricultural crops, floriculture and ornamental nurseries, commercial turf, and in homes and landscapes. The guidelines are written by researchers, specialists, and farm advisors, and are updated regularly as pesticide registrations change and new methods become available".


Pesticide Safety and Training.  WPS Training for Fieldworkers: Teaching Workers How to Protect Themselves from Pesticide Hazards in the Workplace

"This 91-page booklet is the instructor's manual, PDF (836K), designed to be used with the video "Protecting Yourself From Pesticide Hazards in the Workplace." The manual provides instructors with ideas and examples of interactive activities to increase comprehension of the pesticide-related workplace hazards and ways that workers can avoid these hazards. The video and accompanying activities cover all the points that must be addressed when conducting Worker Protection Standard (WPS) training for fieldworkers. Printing this PDF file will provide you with a camera-ready version of the booklet, suitable for copying. Copies of the video have been provided to each state pesticide regulatory agency and Cooperative Extension Service Pesticide Applicator Training Coordinator". 


Pesticide Reregistration Status

Author: United State. Environmental Protection Agency.  Office of Pesticide Programs.


Production Practices for Major Crops in U.S. Agriculture, 1990-97

Abstract: "This report presents information on nutrient and pest management practices, crop residue management, and other general crop management practices in use on U.S. farms. The public has expressed concerns about the possible undesirable effects of contemporary agricultural practices on human health and natural resources. Partly as a response to these concerns, the U.S. Department of Agriculture began collecting information from farmers on their agricultural production practices in 1964. In 1990, through the President’s Water Quality Initiative, the USDA expanded its data collection efforts. The information presented in this report is largely for the 1990’s. Although the information cannot contribute to the science underlying the debate about the effects of agriculture on human health and environmental risk, it can provide information on the use of relevant inputs and production practices that are likely to abate, or to exacerbate, undesirable effects".

Authors: Merritt Padgitt, Doris Newton, Renata Penn, and Carmen Sandretto.

Source:  Economic Research Service. U.S. Department of  Agriculture. (Statistical Bulletin No. 969. 114 pp, September 2000).


Phytoplasmas casts a magic spell that turns the fair Poinsettia into a christmas showpiece

Contents: History of poinsettia cultivars. Proof of phytoplasmal etiology. Identity and geographic distribution of the poinsettia branch-inducing phytoplasma. Friend or foe?

Author: Ing-Ming Lee, USDA, ARS, PSI, Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, BARC-West, Beltsville, Maryland.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Plant Diseases

Abstract: "Plant Disease Profiles are brief descriptions of important plant diseases around the world. Included in each is information about the pathogen, hosts, history, symptoms, losses, disease cycle, and methods of disease management".  Contents:  Apple Scab. Fire Blight. Late Blight. Sigatoka. 

Author: Phil A. Arneson. Department of Planta Pathology.  Cornell University.


Plant Disease Management


Plant Disease Epidemiology: Plant Disease Epidemiology? Disease Progress. The Cyclical Nature of Plant Disease. Monocyclic Epidemics. Polycyclic Epidemics. Combinations of Monocyclic and Polycyclic Epidemics. Mathematical Models. Monocyclic Inoculum Production. Polycyclic Inoculum Production. Modelling Disease Progress. Monocyclic Disease Progress. Polycyclic Disease Progress. The Upper Limit to Disease. Estimating Model Parameters. 
Spatial Aspects of Plant Disease: Splash Dispersal. Wind Dispersal. Vectors. Dispersal of Soilborne Plant Pathogens. Long-Distance Dispersal. References. 
Plant Disease Management Strategies.

Author: Phil A. Arneson. Department of Planta Pathology.  Cornell University.

Another access:


Plant Disease Lessons

Contents: FUNGI AND FUNGUS-LIKE ORGANISMS.  Ascomycetes/Imperfect Fungi. Apple scab. Blackleg of oilseed rape including canola. Brown rot of stone fruits. Dutch elm disease. Ergot of rye. Take-all root rot of small grains and turfgrass. Verticillium wilt. Basidiomycetes. Coffee rust. Rhizoctonia diseases of turfgrass. Southern blight. Stem rust of wheat and barley. Stinking smut (common bunt) of wheat. Oomycetes. Downy mildew of grape. Late blight of potato and tomato. NEMATODES. Lesion nematode. Soybean cyst nematode. PROKARYOTES. Bacterial spot of pepper and tomato. Citrus canker. Fire blight of apple and pear. VIRUSES. Barley yellow dwarf. Tobacco mosaic.

Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


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Plant Pathology:  Past to Present

Plant Pathology: Past to Present is an illustrated storybook describing   the origin, relevance, and science of plant pathology. The story unfolds as if told by Anton deBary, father of plant pathology, and is suitable for elementary and secondary students to adults. The storybook is available for download in English and in Spanish translation. 

Author: Frank Tainter.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Simulations for Teaching

Author: Phil A. Arneson. Department of Planta Pathology.  Cornell University.

  • Applescab: " This version of Applescab is the original Fortran IV version, first written in 1977 for a mainframe computer and later adapted by Robert C. Seem and Phil A. Arneson for the IBM PC. It simulates the development of the fungus Venturia inaequalis on apples in response to weather and various management practices. It still has the old line-by-line input/output and limited on-line help of these early simulators, and the user's manual is no longer available. It is posted here in Teaching Plant Pathology because people are still asking for it. (For nostalgic reasons? Who knows?) The original Fortran source code is packaged with it for anyone who wants to examine the anatomy of a biological simulation".

  • Curaçao: "simulates the sterile insect release method of insect population suppression, conceived by E. F. Knipling and first demonstrated on the Caribbean island of Curaçao in 1955. This program allows the user to investigate the effects of several variables on the effectiveness of sterile insect release in situations that are more realistic than Knipling's original model".

  • Lateblight: "simulates the development of the fungus, Phytophthora infestans, on potatoes in response to weather and various management practices. The program presents a realistic management situation with choices of host plant characteristics, source of seed, proximity to sources of inoculum, and the application of both protectant and systemic fungicides".

  • Resistan: "simulates the spray application of fungicides, either singly or in combination, for the control of a fungus. A fungicide resistant population of the fungus is selected in response to the fungicide use. Changing parameters alters the model to simulate different specific fungi and the fungicides used to control them".


The future world food situation and the role of plants diseases

Author: Per Pinstrup-Andersen Director General International Food Policy Research InstituteWashington, DC. Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


The most important disease of a most important fruit

Prepared byRandy Ploetz.  Tropical Research and Education Center,University of Florida, IFAS, Homestead.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 


Transgenic Virus Resistant Papaya: new hope for controlling papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii

Papaya is a tropical fruit crop that is normally consumed fresh and is valued as a health food because it's rich in vitamins C and A. In Hawaii, small high quality papayas, called the Hawaiian solo type, are grown commercially for export to the mainland United States and Japan. It is the state's second largest fruit crop. However, papaya is severely damaged when infected by the papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV), which is rapidly transmitted by a number of aphid species. In fact, PRSV causes the most serious virus disease of papaya worldwide.

Authors: Dennis Gonsalves, Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Steve Ferreira, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Hawaii, Richard Manshardt, Department of Horticulture, University of Hawaii, Maureen Fitch, USDA, Hawaii Agricultural Research Center, and Jerry Slightom,  Molecular Biology Unit, Pharmacia & Upjohn Company.  Editor: American Phytopathological Society. 

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