Economic Research Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
articles about Fertilizers in the Section:
trabajos sobre ferrtilización en la Sección:
Chemicals & Production Technology
Genetically Engineered Inputs
Organic Agriculture & Production
Pest Management & IPM (Integrated Pest Management)
- Production Input Industries
PAPERS OF THE
LATIN AMERICAN PROGRAMS OF THE
Potash & Phosphate
Institute (PPI) Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada
Latin America Southern Cone (INPOFOS - Cono Sur)
here to see the papers
P on Low P Soils Makes Larger Profits". Authors:
Angel Berardo, Fernando D. Grattone y Guillermo Borrajo.
"Corn Yield Response to Phosphorus Fertilization in the Southeastern Pampas".
Authors: Angel Berardo,
Santiago Ehrt, Fernando E. Grattone and Fernando O.
García. ("Corn is a major crop in agricultural systems of the southern Pampas
of Argentina where soils are low in phosphorus (P) availability. This
research suggests a critical soil P level that can help define where
profitable responses to P application are obtainable").
"Identifying Fertilization Needs for Soybean in Argentina".
Authors: F.H. Gutiérrez-Boem, J.D. Scheiner, and R.S. Lavado. ("This research shows that phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) fertilizers can increase soybean yields in a region where few farmers fertilize this crop. However, current information is insufficient to develop a fertilizer recommendation
balance and management in crop rotations". Author:
Fernando O. García.
("Nutrient removal by grains and forages exceeds
nutrient application in the Pampas of Argentina. These
negative nutrient balances and inadequate soil
management have resulted in significant nutrient losses,
and, thus, in reduced crop yields. Fertilization
management would improve this situation. Generally,
fertilization management is only decided considering the
needs of the inmediate crop but several local and
international experiences have shown the residual
effects of nutrients of low mobility such as phosphorus
(P) and potassium (K), and even of nutrients with high
mobility such as nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S). Residual
effects improve crop yields as well as soil properties,
i.e. organic matter content").
in the Pampas of Argentina: a success story".
Authors: Fernando O. García, Martín Ambroggio, and
Victor Trucco. (No-tillage (NT) in Argentina has
developed into a successful management system in the
Pampas region. AAPRESID (Asociacion Argentina de
Productores en Siembra Directa), a national no-tillage
farmer and agronomist association, has driven this
expansion with the collaboration of the Instituto
Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA) and other
agricultural institutions and companies. Sustainable
higher yields under NT require improved nutrient
and S Fertilization Increase Soybean Yields in the
Pampas". Author: Fernando O. García.
"Phosphorus and Sulfur Fertilization of Corn in the Northern Pampas".
Authors: Hugo Fontanetto, Oscar Keller, Rubén Inwinkelried, Norberto Citroni, and Fernando García. ("Research shows that higher phosphorus (P) rates are needed for
high yielding corn in the northern Pampas of Argentina. Sulfur (S)
responses are significant in intensively cropped soils").
Impact of Soybean Fertilization in Argentina". Author:
Fernando O. García.
Latin American (INFOPOS)
here to see the papers
fertilization of cocoa" see the english version in
Fertilización del cacao. ("Data obtained in the
experiment demonstrate the need of fertilizing cocoa
plantations completely exposed to sunlight. The
treatment that produced the highest yield was fertilized
with 150 kg of N, 90 kg. of P2O5 and 200 kg. K2O per
hectare. This data show that adequate and balanced
fertilization of cocoa can be profitable and it sustains
yield through time").
in soils and plants: myths and reality". Short
communication. More information about chloride is
available by clicking on the: PPI
and Potassium Fertilization and Mineral Nutrition of Soybean
in Guarico State (Venezuela)" see
the english version in Fósforo y Potasio en Soya. Autor: E.
F. Casanosa. ("Although soybean yields are improving in
Venezuela, current production levels fall far short of the
amounts needed to satisfy local feed markets. This
research helps to identify best managemet practices needed
for sustained, high yields on Venezuela's acid, low
fertility savanna soils").
use efficiency in oil palm is increased under irrigation in Ecuador" see
the english version in Fertilización y riego en palma
aceitera. Authors: Francisco Mite, Manuel Carrillo and José
Espinosa. ("Since the early 1960’s,
oil palm (Elaeis guineensis
Jacq) has been grown in Ecuador in response to the growing demand of
vegetable oils for human and industrial consumption.
Currently, the planted area comprises 113,000 ha with an
expected expansion of 10,000 ha per year over the next five years.
One of the most important regions for oil palm cultivation is
Quevedo, in Los Rios province, where approximately 20 percent of
Ecuador's oil palm plantations are found.
This area is prone to soil water deficits and an experiment
was carried out to investigate the effect of irrigation and improved
mineral nutrition on oil palm growth and yield").
Plant Density and Nutrient Management on Plantain Yield".
the english version in Plátano altas densidades: nueva
opción. Authors: Sylvio Belalcázar and José Espinosa.
(Introduction. Hifh density plantain, a new option. Management of
hish density plantain crops. Seed size. Plant uniformity. Disease
control. Nutrient management).
Applications Maintain High Banana Yields Even in Soils with
Relatively High Potassium Content". see
the english version in Respuestas del banano en suelos altos
of High Density Plantain"
see the english version in
Fertilización plátanos altas densidades. Authors: José Espinosa y
Sylvio Belalcázar. ("Research in the main plantain (Musa
paradisica L.) producing areas in Colombia has confirmed high plant
density cultivation produces greater yields than traditional plant
populations. However, nutrient management information under these
high-density systems is lacking. Relevant information of field
experiments conducted in Colombia, to refine fertilizer
recommendations for high-density plantain cultivation, is presented
Response to Potassium Application
in Volcanic Soils". see
the english version in Respuesta de la papa al K en suelos
volcánicos. Authors: Juan Córdova y Franklin Valverde.
("Volcanic soils are commonly mistaken as high potassium (K)
soils that provide little opportunity for crop response to K
fertilizer. This research, conducted in the highlands of Ecuador,
shows K application is capable of increasing total potato yield,
improving quality, and reducing the effects of water stress on
Fertilizer Is Critical for Potato Production in Volcanic Soils".
see the english
version in Respuesta de la papa al P en suelos volcánicos.
Mexico and North Central America (INFOPOS)
here to see the papers
and Broccoli Development - Potassium is an Important
Nutrient in Broccoli during Floret Development".
Soil and Foliar for Coffee production in Guatemala -
Potassium Soil and Foliar Critical Values for Optimum Coffee
Production in Guatemala".
Extraction by Different Avocado Cultivars".
Potassium and Magnesium fertilization to Alfalfa grown on
Vertisol soils of Central Mexico".
Need for P and K in "La Fraylesca Soils" - Heart
of Corn Production in Southern Mexico".
You Know the Proper N, P and K Balanced Fertilization for
Sugar Cane to Increase Yield and Quality?"
and their use
booklet presents guidelines for extension staff on the use of
fertilizers. It explains the need for mineral fertilizers for
agricultural development in support of food security and the
maintenance of soil productivity. The booklet addresses the role
of fertilization in plants in relation to soil characteristics. It
provides general fertilizer recommendations for selected crops and
contains information on soil and plant tissue testing. Practical
suggestions are also offered regarding the design of fertilizer
use demonstrations and extension techniques in general".
Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), Francia and Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la
Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO). Rome,
2000. 70 pp. Fourth Edition. ISBN
Mineral fertilizer distribution and the environment
PART 1. The Issues. Preface. 1. Global environmental context. 1.1 Environmental Agenda. 1.2 Cause for action. 1.3 Trends in looking for solutions. 1.4 Actions by various stakeholders. 1.5 Fertilizer distribution, an important part of the product life cycle. 2. Forms and conditioning of fertilizers 2.1 Definitions. 2.2 Factors influencing fertilizer distribution systems. 2.3 Forms of fertilizers. 2.4 Conditioning of fertilizers. 3. Costs and management systems. 3.1 Marketing costs. 3.2 Management systems - India. 4. Transport. 4.1 International trade in fertilizers and their raw materials. 4.2 Sea transport. 4.3 Transport regulations. 4.4 The transportation system in the USA. 4.5 Environmental aspects. 5. Fertilizer losses. 5.1 Information on fertilizer losses. 5.2 The extent of fertilizer losses. 5.3 Factors determining fertilizer losses in handling and storage. 5.4 The reduction of fertilizer losses. Annex 1: The stacking of fertilizer bags. Annex 2: Loss reduction rules for fertilizers in bags. Annex 3: Loss reduction rules for bulk fertilizers. 6. Environment. 6.1 Codes of practice. 6.2 Toxic impurities. 6.3 Waste disposal. 6.4 Safety. 6.5 Fire. 6.6 Environmental compliance. 6.7 Community relations. Annex. 7. Quality and services. 7.1 The importance of fertilizer quality. 7.2 Granule quality. 7.3 Complex fertilizers. 7.4 Bulk blends. 7.5 Advice and services. 7.6 A case study on distribution-sector services offered by a fertilizer manufacturer. 8. Consumer protection legislation. 8.1 An overview. 8.2 Some examples. 8.3 Regulation of particular fertilizers. 8.4 Sanctions. 8.5 Labeling - an example, France. References and further reading.
Part 2. Case studies. Introduction. 1. Regional overviews. 1.1 West Europe. 1.2 Central and East Europe. 1.3 North America. 1.4 Latin America. 1.5 Sub-Saharan Africa, SSA. 1.6 Asia. 2. Country overviews. Argentina. Australia. Austria. Bangladesh. Belgium. Brazil. Canada. China. Denmark. Egypt. France. Germany. India. Indonesia. Ireland. Japan. Korea Republic. Malawi. Netherlands. Norway. Pakistan. Philippines. South Africa. Spain. Sri Lanka. Thailand. Turkey. United Kingdom. United States. Zimbabwe. About IFA and UNEP.
K. F. IFA/UNEP, March 2000. 106 pp. ISBN 2-9506299-4-6 .
Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA).
Soil and Plant Phosphate
"Phosphorus is essential to all living organisms. The
element phosphorus, however, does not occur by itself in nature,
it is always combined with other elements to form many different
phosphates, some of which are very complex. In this booklet the
word phosphorus or the symbol for the element, P, will usually
be used rather than attempting to define the particular
phosphate involved. Phosphorus passes from one organism to
another in the various food chains. Humankind acquires its
phosphorus from plants which directly, or indirectly through
animals, provide the food we eat. In turn, plant roots take up
phosphorus and most other elements from the soil solution - the
water in the soil. The soil solution invariably contains too
little phosphorus to meet the requirements of actively growing
plants. Thus there has to be a supply of readily available
phosphorus in the soil to replenish the phosphorus in the soil
solution as it is removed by crop uptake. Most unimproved soils
contain too little readily available phosphorus for crops to
produce optimum yields. Thus, additional phosphorus must be
added to soils if they are to produce enough food to provide an
adequate diet both now and in the future. Most of this
additional phosphorus must come from fertilizers because too
little is available from other sources".
Introduction. The Essential Role of Phosphorus in Living
Organisms. The Occurrence of Phosphorus in Nature. The
Uses of Phosphorus. Phosphorus and the Development of
Farming Systems. Soil Phosphorus and its Availability.
Phosphorus Acquisition by Roots. Soil Phosphorus Reserves.
Readily Available Soil Phosphorus and Fertilizer Recommendations.
The importance of maintaining the critical readily available soil
phosphorus level. The Efficient Use of Phosphorus
Fertilizers. Mineral Phosphorus Fertilizers.
Phosphorus and Environmental Issues. Concluding Remarks.
References and Further Reading.
A. E. Johnston. Published by IFA. 46 pp. ISBN
Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), Francia.
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